Coarse crystals or phenocrysts in fine crystalline or glassy text.
Among the stone minerals, there are empty spaces that are filled with glass or the product of its alteration.
A porphyry texture with a microtiter or microleakage duct, a gland in which feldspar micro glutes are flowing.
The tissue in which the feldspar and crystalline glass are radially crystallized
The bulk of the stone is made of glass, and sometimes it has a stream of streams that are called “flow” glass texture.
Crystals of stone and glass are in the form of swaddling milk and are the result of rapid cooling or crystallization.
The texture is seen in ultramafic rocks of the output (Komatsu lava). In this context, olivines and pyroxenes are skeletal, scaffold, or chain-shaped.
Types of volcanic rocks
Cassity Stone – Rhythm:
It contains quartz phenocrysts with mineral feldspar and plagioclase in a feldspar and quartz grain. These rocks are volcanic equivalent to granite rocks.
The main volume of these rocks is feldspar, in particular, feldspar alkaline, which is found in the form of phenocrysts and stone dill.
Andesite and basalt rocks:
The most abundant volcanic rocks with many colored minerals. Like tracheitis, there are no quartz phenocrysts, but plagioclase phenocrysts and high colored minerals. There is no alkaline feldspar in the rock mass, and the dough is mainly from plagioclase and pyroxene.
Phenolic stones, pepper, and granite:
The detection of these rocks is very difficult unless the rock has a large amount of feldspar polyoxyethylene phenocrysts, such as leucite, nepheline and analysis. These rocks are found in alkaline basalt and continental rhythm.
The volcanic equivalent of monzonite rock, which has potassium-rich feldspar compared to basalt and andesite, is potassium feldspar.
Volcanic rocks include the Tullie, Calcoalcaline, Alkaline and Shoshone series.
Includes tulleite basalt, intermediate and acid rocks. Tullie series is in terms of sodium and potassium and other alkaline elements, as well as rare earth elements and rich silica that is found in the constituent regions and inside the plates and sometimes in the subduction regions.
Calco Alkaline Series:
Or the Hyperstone series, which is like a silicon-rich tulleite series with an Al2O3 content of more than 17% and is found in subduction areas.
The poor are from silica, alkaline elements, rare earth elements, volatile matter, ortho-pyroxene and piogunite, and contain persistent and no-fringe olivine, feldspar (cephalin-analism, lucidum) and are seen in continental and oceanic plates.
It has a high potassium ratio of 1 = Kzo / NazO and is abundant in subducting regions, but as calcoallocane, it can not be a good indicator for these regions, because the shoshonite series is also seen in continental plates.
The world’s oldest volcanic rocks
The oldest volcanic rocks on the planet were discovered by geologists in Canada. The rocks were roughly 4 billion years old and discovered in northern Quebec. Scientists hope to learn more about how life begins on the planet by studying these rocks. By comparing these rocks and similar stones found in Greenland, more information can be obtained about the development of the first billion years of Earth’s history. These rocks are located in Purpose Kav 1 on the shores of the Hudson Bay. They have been found almost randomly.
An exciting discovery
At first geologists thought that these rocks were only about 2.8 billion years old. But more detailed studies have shown that they are at least one billion years old. Samples were sent to the Quebec University in Montréal 3 and Simon Fraser 4 in British Columbia to determine the exact age. This was done by Pyrnadou 6 and Dr. Jane David 7. By determining the age of the radioactive elements in rocks, scientists estimated the age of the specimens to be 3 + 825 billion years old. Professor Russ Avenson of the University of Quebec said in an interview with BBC News inline that the discovery had surprised all the scientists. He also said: the discovery of these rocks is similar to the jewelry that has fallen in my skirt
How did life begin?
Canadian rocks are made up of magma that is derived from the Earth’s mantle. Thus, these rocks provide information about the first quarter of the history of the Earth. Scientists believe that the planet was formed 4.6 billion years ago. After this, the moon was formed (possibly from collisions between the earth and other large masses of masses), and then the mantle and shell were developed. Following that, oceans and simple vital forms, such as bacteria, were created. Until today, the information on how to create these is very low. These rocks are very similar to the rocks in the Isaac 9 sequence in Greenland.
With previous studies on these basalt rocks, they seem to have carbon-based compounds produced by biological activity. Canadian and Greenland rocks can now be compared. Professor Stoneson said that such rocks have not been found before. Dr. Rosalind White 10 from the University of Lister 11 of England has for some time studied Greenland rocks. He said: Until this time, the ISAO rocks were considered unique, but this 35-kilometer sequence only represents a part of a small area, and so it’s difficult to get results about the whole of the earth. He said about new rocks that they would help geologists to provide a better picture of the initial evolution of the earth. Porpoise Kavu rocks were obtained as part of a mapping project under the supervision of Martin Part 12 from the Quebec Natural Resources Ministry.
getting to know
During volcanic activity, molten material (900 to 1200 degrees Celsius) with a large amount of gas, water vapor, ash and other solids emanates from its crater. Exit may be slowly and gradually, or in the form of abrupt and explosive eruptions. The volcano’s materials are divided into three categories: solid, liquid, and gas, which we examine below.
During the activity of the volcano, various solids come out of its crater, which is different in shape, size, and gender. Although in general, the composition of these materials is similar to the combination of magma coming out of the volcano, in some cases, fragments of the volcano smoke from the explosion can be thrown and thrown out, in which case the genus is different from the genus lava. The solids released from the volcanoes are divided into various types such as volcanic bombs, lapilli, sand, and ashes.
This name is called large pieces that are 10 to 50 centimeters in size. The general form of these bombs is like the duct, which is caused by the rotation of volcanoes that are still dusted.
The dimensions of these materials vary from one to three centimeters and, in some cases, cover the volcano’s slabs in thick layers.
Sands and Ashes
The smaller parts of the volcano are called sand (visible parts of the eye) and volcanic ash (powdery material). The mineralogical composition of these objects is different and often consists of feldspar, lucid, agitate, manite and the like. Volcanic ashes may in some cases be displaced by wind, long distances from the volcano. Sedimentation of these materials in different sedimentary basins creates storms.
The molten material that comes out of the volcano is the remains of magma, which is called lava, and is a mixture of different silicates. The main difference between the lava and the internal magma is that the lava has less water than magma, gas and steam. Also, the chemical composition of the lava is more uniform than magma. Lava can be divided into acidic (rhyolite), medium (andesitic) and play (basalt). The temperature of lava is different and up to 1200 degrees Celsius. As a result of the freezing of lava, there are various volcanic rocks that their general shape may be in the form of a layer or thin sheet. These include basalt, andesitic, drastic and trachyte.
In all volcanic processes, various gases and vapors leave the main craters and the gaps surrounding the volcano. The genus of these gases is usually. Water vapor is one of the most abundant gas products in volcanoes and in various states it forms 60 to 90 percent volumes of exhaust gases. Exhaust gases continue in addition to the time of volcanic activity until long after the shutdown. The temperature of the gases varies widely and is usually high. The gases are divided into three groups depending on the temperature.
Fumaroles: Their temperatures are above 180 ° C.
Sulfates: which have a temperature between 180 and 100 ° C.
Moffat: Their temperature is less than 100 ° C.
The region’s gems include Neh (Neh) complex from Sistan and Eocene volcanic rocks from the Lut block. The gems of the set are nine including peridotite, serpentinite, gabbro, dolerite, Diaz, plagio granite, art, sedimentary rocks and related metamorphism. Intrusive igneous rocks with tartar age are also observed in the region. Listogites, as hydrothermal alteration products of the aforementioned gems, are extruded in weak areas of the crust, ie faults and fractures. The main part of the listings, formed at the beginning of their formation, is formed within the rocks of the nine and the Eocene volcanoes, and in the later stages, the siliciclastic and carbonate veins are affected by the mentioned stones. The region’s listings are considered as the main goal of the study in the region. The study of microscopy and chemical analysis and field evidence has identified three types of silicon, carbonate and carbonate lignite in the region. However, according to other divisions, there may be some types of ortholysonites, nephelinites, paralstonite, and low potassium autoimmune listings. Tertiary intrusive bodies (after Eocene volcanic rocks) include granites with monzogranite to granodiorite composition, the influence of these masses in previous rocks (ophiolite rocks and Eocene volcanoes in the region), and the non-breaking of these masses by licenses , The relative age after the Eocene volcanoes and the significant nitrogen formation for these masses. In determining the formation of leaflets in the region, it should be noted that the existence of intrusions after the Eocene has the potential to affect these masses as the source of heating of the previous fluids (metamorphic, atmospheric, marine, …?) In the rocks of the region Or alternatively, as the direct source of hydrothermal fluids effective in Limonite alteration. Although the direct source for the formation of thermal fluids is not acceptable due to the presence of low potassium (K2O) in the listings, and these masses can be referred to as previous heating fluid sources. This is determined by performing isotopic experiments and rare earth elements. The minerals found in the listings include non-metallic types (magnesite, dolomite, anecdotes, calcite, siderite, quartz, calciodonium, oil) and metal types (magnetite, hematite, chromite, etc.).
The metallogenic mineralization in the region is twofold, which has been emphasized by geochemical studies. Organizations are related to pathogenesis and non-associated with legalization. Mineralogy associated with pathogenesis, which includes magnetite, hematite and chromite, is more likely to originate from alumina and mafic host rocks. The mineralogy that is unrelated to legitimization has been delayed after major regionalization in the region, including malachite, arsenic pyrite and pyrite with quartz. Gold anomalies have been observed in some Lignite samples (7 samples above 12 ppb), which are more than silica. In quartz arsenide tritiated delays, gold has been found to host a ppm of 11-2 which requires more detailed work. Considering the information obtained from the mineralization process, it can be considered similar to the low-sulfide quartz gold deposits. To confirm or modify these conclusions, carry out isotopic experiments (sulfur) and age measurement of rocky units associated with mineralization (tartaric granite, listings, quartz-arsenic nitrite veins, etc.) and determine the temperature and pressure of mineralization solutions, it is suggested . In conducting geophysical explorations, IP and SP methods are proposed to identify areas with quartz-sulfide mineralization.
Solid ground parts are formed from rocks that are sometimes of a kind of mineral, and in most cases, made up of a mixture of several different types of mineral material. Geologists have classified rocks based on their origin. Volcanic rocks are rocks formed by freezing molten material. Sedimentary stones occur when dissolved chemicals or particles of rock are deposited and solidified by wind, water, or laminar ice masses over time. Deformed rocks are also called rocks that, in the depths of the earth’s crust, undergo some kind of heat and pressure.
Igneous or volcanic rocks are caused by the freezing of molten materials called “magma” or “mineral minerals”. Inside the earth is solid, not melt but very hot. At the bottom of the shell is a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius. In some parts of the crust, especially where the water is flowing, it is possible to melt the rocks because the melting point in those areas is lower.
In places where the conditions are right, the media forms the lower and inner sections of the shell. Part of this mega, by volcanoes, is melting from volcanic craters and reaching Earth’s surface. Of course, most of the magma will never reach Earth’s surface. They often slowly cool down in the shell and may collapse due to erosion. These plutonic volcanic rocks are called. Plutonic rocks slowly cool down. During this gradual cooling, their minerals create large crystals. Platoons are more rough and rosy than other volcanic rocks.
Volcanic rocks are either rich in silica and have a small amount of iron and magnesium, or vice versa. Granular volcanic rocks that are rich in iron and weak in silica are called basalt and are called granite-rich platinum-rich silica. Granite almost covers the lower layers of most continents and basalt is found on the floor of all oceans.
Earth-surface rocks are constantly exposed to chemical and mechanical forces. The process of rock decomposition is called erosion. Water contributes to the dissolution of minerals. When the water freezes, it expands. This expansion helps to separate the mineral grains in the rocks. In addition, living organisms produce chemicals that help dissolve the rocks.
When the rocks break down, the minerals often move along with the erosion factor. The water flows through the rocks. Wind and ice masses also participate in erosion. Erosion is usually slow and slow, but over the course of millions of years, this process can even affect rocks that are several kilometers deep.
Minerals that are flowing along with erosion factors, eventually become sedimentary deposits and precipitate. Sandstone is a sample of sedimentary rocks that are formed by sticking sand particles to each other.
Some of the soybean gems are called biogenetics. These rocks are created by the actions of living organisms. Coal is the remains of woody plants that turn into rocks over the years due to heat and pressure. Limestone is formed by microscopic marine organisms. These creatures secrete calcium carbonate protective shells themselves. After the death of these organisms, the crust remains and becomes limestone.
When the rocks reach the depths of the earth, they become hot. The Earth’s crust becomes warmer at 25 ° C every mile to the depth. At a depth of 1.6 km, the depth of the earth’s surface is about 360/41 kPa. When the rocks are exposed to such pressure and heat, the minerals begin to react and the rocks turn into deformed rocks. Some of these rocks contain identifiable segments that indicate their origin, but some of them are so altered that only their chemical compositions provide evidence to identify their origin.
Earth can be thought of as a gigantic system of active cycles. In each cycle, matter and energy are transferred from one place to another and may be transformed. Eventually matter and energy return to the first place and the cycle begins from the first. Cycles affect everything on the planet from weather to landscape. There are various cycles on and within the earth. Some of the most important of these are: 1) atmospheric circulation 2) ocean flow 3) global heat transfer 4) water cycle 5) rocks cycle
The warm air by the sun near the equator, rising and moving toward the poles of the earth, returns to the surface of the earth and flows to the equator. This movement, along with the state of the earth, drives the heat and humidity across the planet, leading to the creation of winds and patterns of weather. In some areas, the winds change in the seasons. These patterns are called monsoon winds. In the summer, the air is warmed up over Asia by the sun, rising from the Indian Ocean to humid rain, causing daily rainfall in most countries in South Asia. In winter, the air is cooled over Asia and it depletes more of the moisture, resulting in air drying. Similar to the pattern in the Pacific Ocean near Mexico, it takes wet weather and storms in the south to the southwest of the United States.
The ocean flow
The flow of the oceans moves with winds and takes the same pattern. Continents are blocking the ocean’s path. The ocean flow is near the equator in the west direction and then goes toward the poles, heading east to the east and then returning to the equator.
Global heat transfer
Global warming is a large cycle of ocean water that distributes heat across the globe. Water is very cold, salty and heavy in the polar regions. This water drops to the ground and moves along the sea floor to the equator. Finally, the water is raised in the continental boundaries of the continent and is combined with current water at the surface of the earth. When this water reaches the polar bridge, it drops again. This three-dimensional heat mixes the ocean in the ocean and warms up the polar water. This cycle also leads to the rise of nutrients from the depths of the oceans to the ground, which are available to marine plants and animals.
Volcanic Rock Cycle
The variety of rocks on Earth is much higher than other planets due to active processes. Geologists speak of a cycle of rocks to explain the proportions of different species of rocks. This cycle can start from the flow of molten volcanic material and cool down to form igneous rocks. When these rocks are exposed to water, they decompose as a result of sedimentation of minerals into sedimentary rocks. These rocks ultimately reach the depths of the earth and, through heat and pressure, transform into deformed rocks, eventually melting and converting into materials for the formation of igneous rocks. Stones rarely fall into a complete cycle. Instead, some stages are removed and some are repeated.
Inside the ground
Geologists are not able to study directly the depths of the earth. The deepest drilled well is 13 km. Geologists know that parts of the Earth with its thin shell layers are different. At the bottom of the earth, the pressure is so high that minerals become compressed into very high-density materials that are not found on the surface of the earth.
One of the ways to recognize the composition of the earth is the chemical analysis of celestial gems. Certain species of these rocks, called chondrite, have remained unchanged since centuries before colliding with Earth in the solar system. Geologists can estimate the origin of chemical compositions by using chondrites. Despite the chondrites, the earth is formed by layers containing various chemical materials. Geologists, with the study of earthquake shocks, are using new seismic equipment to find new points of view about the depth of the earth. The velocity and movement of earthquakes depend on the composition and density of the materials in which seismicity is located. Geologists find out in detail the depth of the earth by analyzing these vibrations.
Under the crust, up to a depth of 2,900 kilometers, there is a thick layer called a mote. The mote is not completely rigid, but it can slowly currents. The Earth’s crust is suspended on the mantle just like a board on the water. As a thick board grows more than a thin layer of water, a thick continental shell is placed above the oceanic crust. The slow motion of the rocks on the mob causes the continents to move
As a result, earthquakes, volcanoes, and the formation of mountain ranges.
In the center of the Earth is the core. The core is made up of iron, nickel and possibly a small amount of lighter elements such as sulfur and oxygen. The diameter of the nucleus is about 7,100 km, slightly more than half the diameter of the Earth and approximately the size of Mars. It is approximately 2,250 kilometers from the outer core of the liquid. The nucleus moves to create the magnetic field of the earth. Geologists believe that about 2.600 kilometers of internal core are made with the same material as the outer parts of the core, but is solid. The interior section is about four-fifth of the moon. The ground goes down to the core, getting hotter and hotter. Under the continental crust, the temperature is about 1000 degrees Celsius. Under the crust, the temperature rises to about 1 ° C per kilometer. Geologists believe that the core temperature is between 3700 and 4300 degrees Celsius.
Hot stones move slowly up the top of the pitch, while the colder rocks fall near the surface, because hot materials are lighter than cold materials. It is said to come up and dive at different temperatures of heat transfer. With the flow of earth, the earth’s crust is divided into pieces called tectonic plates. These pages are closed like a broken ice in a lake. The slow movements of the vestibule lead to the movement of the crust, resulting in the movement of the continents, the formation of mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes. In some places, especially the bottom of the ocean, tectonics are separated. The magma comes up to the top to fill the gaps between the pages. To the parts where tectonics are separated, they are called the center of expansion. Many volcanoes occur in these areas. By cooling the material coming out of these volcanoes, oceanic shells are formed from basalt rocks.
Earth’s crust can not be spread anywhere and everywhere. In some cases, some of the shells should be removed. When two sides push each other, one of them slips into the mote. This is called subdocaching. The crumbling plate in the ground eventually melts and forms in the form of a magma. Most of the magnitude created by subduction does not reach the surface of the earth, but it cools down in its crust and creates plutonic rocks. The continental tip does not fall on the ground due to its thickness and lightness, but the heavy shell of ocean undergoes subduction. The boundary between the two plates is determined by the collision with the deep groove at the bottom of the ocean. These grooves are the deepest parts of the ocean, and their depth reaches up to 11,000 meters. The higher surface that remains on the surface may be the continental or oceanic crust. This page is not below, but it is affected by subduction. When the two pages move sideways, the longer edges of the crust are pressurized. The page becomes thicker and taller and mountainous areas are created on its surface. When the rock falls to a depth of 100 kilometers, the ground begins to melt and form a game. Part of this mega has reached the surface and leads to volcanic eruptions. Areas with abundant volcanoes such as Peru, Japan, and the Northwest of the United States, are located near areas where subduction occurs. Types of volcanic rocks Areas with abundant volcanoes such as Peru, Japan, and the Northwest of the United States, are located near areas where subduction occurs. Types of volcanic rocks Areas with abundant volcanoes such as Peru, Japan, and the Northwest of the United States, are located near areas where subduction occurs. Types of volcanic rocks
Unlike crystalline rocks, the crystalline crystallization stops, unlike crystalline rocks, in the aftermath of a primary cooling in the depths of the earth, which may form crystals. As a result, hydrocarbon rocks are crystallized, and such micro leaked rocks also indicate that the rapid microscopic crystallization of crypts It is formed as a micro-luminal tissue. The visible blouses with the naked eye (photo crystals) are very small and they do not exist. In the case of glass-burning rocks, they can be found in scoria, which, while being active, It is thrown out of the water, which is flowing from the current material and is very similar to black glass bottles. The chemical composition of the rocky rocks is very similar to the crystalline volcanic rocks. Their only different states are, for example, Ng Gabbro and Baseball, similar to the chemical composition, but at the bottom of the rock, these two rocks create differently different roughnesses. In the case of any chemical composition of the rocks, the rocks correspond to the specific grains. The whole roughness relates to the type of eruption and its specific properties. To determine their lines, as if the material forming the nuggets is greater, their time of the explosion will be explosive, in the presence of materials always there is a clear light. This is where the very similarity between the nuggets Bright-colored volcanic explosion Baatshfshanhay Baatshfshanhayaram there Vatshfshan dark.
Classical Quaternary Classics
Acrova is a famous mineralogist for four types of hydrocarbon activity, which does not mean that only four of them have been formed, but may also be a combination of several types of earthquakes. Generally, in the first to fourth grade, the temperature of the lava is reduced and the material of the outside stones The acid is poured and the explosions become more intense, and the proportion of solids thrown more than before increases in proportion to the fluid content.
The four types of classical glaciers are:
A. Hawaiian Type Hawaiian Type
It is widely known that demonstration, including explosions of throwing conical material, is very important. It has been continuously connected, with the fact that the openings of the reservoir in the lake, where the material has been buried for many years, can be leaked out of the open-air The full range of well-studied islands of Hawaiian volcanoes, including Mona Lava, whose elevation is 1,400 meters long, reaches a height of 1235 meters. The volcanic eruption of these islands is much larger than most of the island’s islands. The Nemazhiraoni The Magnus (Lake Bozman) in Berkoff, Central Africa belongs to this category.
B-Strombophilic Strombophilic Activity
(The name of this earthquake called Strombley is one of the Northern Territories located in the north of Sicily) is also a continuity of operation, and these reservoirs are also overheated, but occasionally they are flooded out of the fluid through a column, but occasionally they are thrown out of a gas column. Usually these explosions They do not pose a hazard, even the substances that fall from the bottom as much as they are, is a hazardous hazard. The activity of this type of lightning is extremely spectacular in the night. In the absence of the light of life, the materials are slipping through the slopes of the ventures, and the layers of the dots of the lava pass into the sound of the sound. So, this material, which emits Stromboli, is formed from the masses and vesicles.
The name of these volcanoes has been taken from the Volcano islands, in particular, in the southern part of the islands of Lipari. The lakes are very slippery, and the previous species are less fluid and very quickly crazy. The chimney sequence is blocked at the quarrying site. As a result, its activity may be reduced and it will be eliminated in the direction of the evacuation of vapors. It is very popular in this sound of the Pune (a very bubble-like lagoon), and a very small part of the melt is cast. The exhilarating evapotranspients along with the mass exodus are shaped like umbrellas and are very much bombarded with explosions. They also have a very limited expansion, and these runs very quickly even on the slopes of a very tight redundant, because these runs are slippery loops that can be considered as rhyolites of all kinds.
The eruption of Kuh-Peleh, located at Martinique in 1902, is famous for its catastrophic catastrophe, and the name for the fourth type of arose is called the Lada River, with its high temperature (Rholyite-Dumitry-Dacit). The floodplains are often relatively long-lived. There is a very clear stage for these types of gutters. The same is the exit of the buccal exhaust, and then the explosion occurs, as in the case of Volcko-type volcanos of gas-oxide carbon dioxide, an impedance occurs with the exhaust of gases and gases, the burning clouds of the carriers, or of the lateral gaps and gaps. These clouds are darkened in color and interspersed. They find that they are surrounded by bursaries, and they do not always separate from each other, and the other is not the same as the one that is ashes, the parts that make up the wrappers. Burning clouds when moving down the ground are rotated across the range from 10 to 15 m / s, and the crowd moves from the bottom of the horizon, which is similar to the ambient airflow of the avalanche. Like in the clouds of burning, everything burns in it. The walls of the fires are burning in Romy. In the spring of 1902, the clouds of the waves of the earthquakes destroyed the city of Pearmarthenic. It was the result of the existence of all the inhabitants of the city, with the exception of a prisoner who had rescued his prison cell for his prisoner who had rescued him. After the exodus of burning clouds, they pulled out a form of dumbbells or bells The pericarp is placed on the spot. The needles are broken down and frozen in the form of rocks. Most composite volcanoes change the type of spontaneous eruption into time, that is, from a very bulk to a type of scrotal disease