History and economics of quail breeding
The Japanese coterie cotorina japonica is called the eastern quail-coturinx quail phrohs and is called in the Indian language bater.
Kutoniks are widely distributed in Europe, Africa and Asia, and these birds are considered as migratory species. It seems that the Kutonixs, whether they were domesticated in Japan at the time of the eleventh century or those that were then from China to Japan Were originally stored as ornamental birds and singers, but in 1900, kutorniks were widely used in Japan to produce meat and egg, and the production of meat and quail eggs was significant and Later in many other countries, such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia and France The rest of the world was concerned about the development of belligerent breeding in China, so that Saudi Arabia recently cultivated a large number of quail, and one of the country’s export items was quail.
In Iran, quail is commonly breeding, and it is hoped that in the future, this production will be expanded and quail meat and egg production will increase.
In India, quails were first introduced at the Central Investigative Center for Poultry Research by dr.b.panda in 1974, and then at other research centers. A new kind of poultry that has been unknown in India in the past decade in The length and width of the country of India have been remarkable.
The few facts that make quail farming an economic task are as follows:
1) Rapid growth – At least 6 weeks old
The body weight of a Chinese bulldog is a male adult male at this age of about 140 grams. While the females are a bit heavier, they weigh 150 to 180 g. Growth rate is about 3.5 times faster than domestic poultry.
2) Sexual maturity is coming too soon
At about age 50, quails can usually produce whole eggs.
3) high amount of egg production
With proper attention to quail, these birds lay 260 eggs in their first year of laying.
4) The intervals of generations are short.
The ability of quails to produce 3 or 4 generations per year makes it possible to use it as a laboratory animal.
5) Short and short incubation periods of only 17 to 18 days.
6) Stabilization for high breeding density because it has a lower level of grains and drinking space than chickens and ducks.
7) There is no need for bacon because the quail species resists many of the common chicken diseases.
8) A quick return on the small amount of money that will be put into operation.
9) Delicious quail meat and its protein properties.
10) A great profit from the production of meat and quail eggs.
The quail market in the continent of Europe, especially in France, shows that there are potentially good conditions for its specific markets, and whenever production can be developed, these interesting situations for the future will open up to quail growers.
There is no reason why great advances will be made by applying better breeding techniques, advanced hatchery methods, and improving the environmental conditions for keeping baby quail and growing young birds until maturity.
It is also necessary to improve the health standards on the line with those that are felt in other sectors of the poultry industry, as the prevailing disease that occurs can be prevented by better management.
Japanese Quail Types:
Japanese quail falls under the Aves class of Japonica, hence called Coturnix.
In general, the location of quail in the classification based on what is mentioned is as follows:
Sub phylum vertebra
The genus corturnix
Sub species japonica
There are five types of Japanese quail:
1) pharach (wild type):
This bird has mixed colors. Includes black and shades of different colors that are superior to brown color. In the quail, the face of the face and the throat are brown and the throat and the upper part of the cinnamon is color. In the face and throat, the upper part of the cinnamon is bright with a black color, while the lower part of the chest is color.
Quail feathers are a blend of brown-browned colors and their shady states. The upper portions of the chest and the male quail are chestnuts and the lower chest are brown breasts. It has black marks while the lower parts are dates. Varieties that are classified according to the pattern of feathers are high.
2) British Range:
A kind of quail with black feathers
3) English white:
A kind of quail with white feathers and black parts
4) Manchurian Golden:
Birds are golden or bird colored.
This quail is a two-color quail type.
Characteristics of quail
Quails are powerful and robust, and can be adapted to various logic constraints.
Quails are fast-growing birds that reach maturity within about 6 weeks.
The live weight of the adult bird is as follows:
Male quail 120 to 150 grams
Quail matter 150 to 180 grams
The quail since 1900 has been commonplace in Japan for the production of meat and eggs.
Quails produce a lot of eggs. The quails have 260 eggs in their first year of laying. On the same token, quails are a lot of eggs. Female quail usually reaches the peak of egg production at about 50 days of age. Quails spend 75% of their eggs between 3:00 and 5:00 PM, and 25% of their eggs at night.
Reproduction of quail
The domestic quails are reproduced in all seasons of the year, when their ages range from 10 to 20 weeks. Products are eggs every 16 to 24 hours for 8 to 12 months. The puppies should be hacked for 4 days after import. The males are harvested in a flock (male for 3) and up to 3 days after the males and females are separated. The average germ is about 10 g. This number is about 8% of the body weight of the quail against 3 And 1% for chicken and turkey. Each quail seems to have eggs with a shell or color scheme.
Some species only white eggs. Young hips weigh 6 to 7 grams.
When they are hatching, they are brown in color with yellow ribbons. Extraction is particularly pronounced in older birds. The color of whiteness is 39 to 61 yolks. The yolk is more expensive and the white powder is less in the quail than eggs.
Embryo development of domestic quails is controlled by light. Continuous bird storage in the continuum leads to almost complete prohibition of sexual behavior and egg production. While maintaining birds in continuous light, they have a high egg production rate during the first year and When the production reaches the stopping stage, it ends at the end of the second year. Chickens spend about 75% of their eggs in the morning, while the quails as they say, make up 75% of their daily eggs at 3 to 6 pm. Blinds They are about 6 weeks old.
Under ideal quail conditions, there are about 250 to 300 eggs per year. The next year’s production is 48 percent of the first year in quail.
Maintenance and environment
The quail is grown in a suitable area in terms of temperature and transported to the growth hall at the age of 2 to 3 weeks.
It is much better to avoid unnecessary stress and not to move it from place to place in the short quail life. Any system that is used to maintain quail is like a chicken, and the mother and cages and appliances used should be nurtured The quail is adapted. High and high temperatures are critical for good quail production, and the birds should be kept at 35-36 ° C (95 to 97 degrees Fahrenheit), which gradually falls to 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) within 3 weeks. It is important to start a good life, and it’s best to start with food and water in plastic trays. And after a while, they are accustomed to automatic cupboards or nipples, and we get used to the previous ones. The birds should be bred for 150 bird per square meter on the floor, and in the second week there will be 100 birds in the same space.
The intensity of light is very important and should be very bright at the start of the day (60 to 70 luxuries) and reach 10 lux in the third week. When the lighting is completely controlled, the birds can be lit up to 23 hours a day, and better than Consider the age of one day, one hour in the dark, and get them accustomed to the darkness, so that there is no problem in the dark when it comes to power outages. In the case of birds raised on the floor, the best litter or straw A special care should be taken in this case that the substrate should be stored in a dry place because moisture can cause aspergill disease And this respiratory disease can easily kill quails because they are more susceptible than the dominant birds.
To achieve maximum egg levels of 14 to 16 hours, light is required. In general, the space required for a mature quail is 20 inches square. In other words, the quail egg density is increased in density.
Breeding and quail breeding needs
Water and dander should be available to quail chicks to eat and drink, otherwise they will be wasted due to hunger and thirst. It should be noted that during the first 48 hours of life, the lack of proper food is normal. During this time, they feed on the yolk sacs. At first, the duster, which is finely ground, is sprinkled on the insect carton under the chicks, and gradually from the dishes with a height of 1.5 to 2 cm and a width of 3 Up to 5 cm.
In order to prevent waste of wire, wire mesh is placed on the ducts, and the same applies to water pipes to prevent chicks from immersion and choking. Use of insoles and Or under the chickens below the chickens will prevent them from slipping and catching the femoral discomfort. The best method of breeding quail is to use the batteries and cages made for this purpose. It’s been cooked for 3 weeks in special cages Which are subject to special conditions in terms of temperature and nutrition, and after which they are transferred to other cages. Usually, these cages are made up of 5 floors, and cabinets and drinkers are located on the sides of these cages, and chicks of the quail can easily use water and food, given their long neck. The use of bedding is not appropriate.
The most commonly used method in Iran, which is not satisfactory, is that the chicks are held in small plastic baskets for 6 days (50 to 60 chicks per basket), and then they are transferred to the bed, which is the transfer of the chicks The litter on the bed leads to 1.5 to 2.5 percent mortality. The longer the chickens are kept in the growing baskets, the more chicks are prepared for life.
While 24-hour brightness accelerates sexual maturity and illumination from 16 to 18 hours causes it to be delayed. The cages used to hold the quail are made up of wires that prevent the quail from leaving the cage, and the distance between the wires The floor cages are 10 to 15 mm apart, and the bird’s feces easily slip under the cage on the tray or conveyor, and there is a gentle slope, where egg eggs are slipped over it and placed outside the cage.
The level required for each quail is 150 centimeters in a cage. If laying quails are raised on the bed, they should be used for laying egg traps. These traps should be covered with soft shawls or straw, and at the beginning of the laying period, they should be used to egg inside these traps. To do this, the worker concerned should regularly take them to the trainee’s starting hour, usually at an hour close to the dusk, and remove the eggs that are on the bed and into the traps because seeing eggs on the bed of the quail The laying of eggs on the bed encourages. The last collection of eggs should be done at around 9 o’clock Dead otherwise it must be done in the next morning.
Incubation conditions are used because of the small size of quail eggs and the crispness and fragility of its crust. Incineration trays are used in each house. Two eggs are placed in each house. Long-term storage of seeded eggs has a negative effect on their hatching capacity. Therefore, it is recommended that quail eggs last for 14 days in a room with a temperature of 10 to 15 ° C and a relative humidity of 75%. In practice, it is possible to reach optimum moisture The optimum temperature for incubation of eggs is from 37.5 to 37.2 degrees. Quail bites at temperatures of 39 ° C and above do not last for more than a few hours, and hence the temperature setting of the incubator is very important and low heat The optimum results in longer incubation time.
In general, the incubation time of quail eggs is due to the effect of humidity factors and temperatures between 16 and 18 days, and in appropriate conditions, 70% of the births are observed in the seventeenth day. At the end of the day, the quail eggs are transported from the sterilizer to the hatcher machine. The temperature of 37.5 degrees and the humidity is 70 percent and the temperature of 37 degrees and the humidity of 85 percent leads to a 75 percent hatch.
The highest efficiency is related to the incubation of quail eggs from a herd in three to five months old quail, and hence the queen of the herd is removed every six months and another herd is replaced. In normal conditions, without the use of artificial quail Between April and September, an average of 50-100 eggs are produced, but by applying a suitable nutrition and optimal nesting, nests produce up to 280 eggs. When some quail eggs are put in 2 hours at 24 o’clock The duration of artificial light is usually between 14 and 18 hours.
At the beginning of the laying period, the time interval between two eggs is 24 to 30 hours, and this will be shortened gradually with increasing age. The weight of a quail egg is 9 to 10.5 grams, which is 7 percent of the body weight of the quail. One female quail produces 2 to 3 kilograms, which is 20 times the weight of the egg itself. Female quail usually starts at the age of 35 to 50 days. They reach the peak at 13 weeks of age. Breastfeeding decreases with age. Younger young flocks use about 10 to 13 weeks of age to have good fertility. The ratio of 3 or 4 males to 20 fetuses in the fertility cage system The extraction gradually increases and reaches its peak 4 or 5 days after the male enters the herd, and after that fertility reaches 3 days after separating the spit
Incubation and hacking
Successful reproduction of quails begins in the period before incubation. Plants should be collected several times a day and carefully kept because quail eggs are very sensitive to the damage to the shell. Before storing egg hatching, you should Under the influence of formaldehyde gas for 20 minutes, storage should be carried out at a temperature of 15.5 ° C with a humidity of 80% for 7 to 10 days.
A messenger with a dirty hatchery area is a major source of infection and illness. Units should be well rinsed and disinfected using quaternary ammonium or some commercial disinfectants.
Only the clean eggs that have been exposed to the incense should be used. In other words, the eggs can be eaten within 12 hours after being placed inside the incubator. To incubate 25 g of potassium permanganate in Pour a pot or granule and then add 35 ml of aldehyde form per cubic meter of incubator space. Forced power power incubators can be used if the wind is working and the ventylators should be closed at the time of eating. After 20 minutes, the vents can be opened. The humidity at this stage must be high and insert The temperature varies from 20 to 30 degrees. The incubation period between 17 and 18 days varies depending on the species and practical methods. The pupils should be placed in a tray with a large end at the top and the amount of rotation of the egg should be any 2 to 4 hours. On the fourteenth day or earlier, the eggs should be trailed to trays in which case they will be marked to be returned. A separate hatcher should be used with a heat of 37.2 with a moisture content of 70%. The hatch should remain completely closed for all hatch processes until the chicks leave the incubation day 17 or 18.
The eggs can be transported to hatch trays after 14 days of incubation or earlier. Chickens are transported to the incubation system after 18 days of incubation. The yeasts are more delicate than chickens and require more care in They have the first 2 weeks of their lives.
Storage of incubation eggs
The incubation eggs should be stored completely at a temperature below the physiognomic point (23.9 °). The storage medium is 12.8 to 15.5 ° C. For a good incubation, the recommended moisture content is 75 to 80% The high relative humidity leads to an increase in the growth of fungi, which causes egg contamination. The best time to keep incubation eggs at the required temperature and humidity is 5 to 7 days, and more than that, it has an inverse effect on incubation and if Eggs should be kept for more than a week, they must be rotated. This rotation is necessary to prevent the stem from sticking to the shell.
To clean the eggs, woolen paper or cloth should be used for incubation so that they do not damage their thin shell. Dirty eggs should not be used for incubation.
Egg contamination begins at laying time, so daily egg production should be given before the gas is stored.
Choosing the mother quail
The choice of mother quail is usually based on inspection, weight and health conditions.
The main requirement is that the birds are in good health and show good uniformity. Birds can be made from known and well-known lines with good egg capacity, survival and good hatchability.
This issue is of great importance in avoiding the mating of quails related to each other during the implementation of the reproductive program. Using cross-reproduction methods and telling males and females, other mammals can prevent the mating of quails related to each other. And a standard for a powerful hybrid, and good features remain, it’s wise to keep at least 6 lines and preferably more lines to help with this program.
Hatching quail chicks
Quail eggs are extremely subtle and should be taken with great care. Many quail growers prefer to immerse eggs in storage before being stored in a healthy solution, then the storage location should be between 16 and 20 °. Relative humidity should not be less than 75%.
The way the car is run is as follows:
At the start of the temperature, the temperature should be 37.5 ° C and humidity 30.6 °, at the age of 15 days, the relative degree would increase to 90%.
The temperature should be changed to 37.2 at the time of exhaust, and the relative humidity of 80% should be taken into account.
Eggs should be returned 7 times a day, and this should not be the case when the machine is not automatic.
The perfect temperature for chicken breeding
Causes of Low Hatch
Quails require sufficiently balanced food. The quail diet should contain a higher level of nutrients. Wheatgrass can be classified as a parent at 0-3 weeks of age and at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and laying or mother 6 weeks later. This The issue depends on how much they grow and produce. The amount of food is also effective in this case, so they should be given enough food. Beginning is the most critical period and requires special management and nutritional care. Quail feeding is like feeding chickens. Wheatgrass is also divided into starter, growth and quail, or mother, which grows and grows. On the first 3-4 weeks, quail should be fed from a diet containing approximately 27% protein and about 2,750 kcal / kg of energ